Online Monitoring of Atmospheric Inorganic Gases
by J.L. Fry, H. Allen, B. Ayres, D.C. Draper, S. Kappes and A. Steinbach
Atmospheric aerosols exert a large but uncertain negative (cooling) radiative forcing on regional climate. Their chemical composition affects this climate forcing via aerosol hydroscopicity and consequential cloud interactions, as well as providing clues to the chemical origins of the aerosol. A Metrohm Monitor for AeRosol and Gases in Ambient air (MARGA) instrument was used as part of the Southeastern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS), a large field campaign that took place in Centerville, Alabama, USA. A MARGA was used to measure the inorganic composition of aerosols and the key gases (HNO3, NH3, SO2) in equilibrium with each aerosol, enabling elucidation of aerosol composition and inferences about origin. The data from this summer field study are compared to data collected in the Pacific Northwest, a comparison which helps to isolate the roles of varying regional SO2 sources, humidity, and temperature on aerosol composition and loading.
Chromate in Toys, Leather, and Potable Water
Generally speaking, chromate – Cr(VI) – is classified as allergenic, carcinogenic, and extremely toxic and is subject to strict monitoring. Cr(VI) can occur in various concentrations in different areas, e.g., drinking water, toys, or textile and leather products. Metrohm has developed ion chromatographic determination methods for determining Cr(VI) in various concentration ranges (ng/L to mg/L) with Inline Sample Preparation techniques for various matrices. The method can be almost entirely automated. In the following we present the analysis of hexavalent chromium in toys, leather, and drinking water.
IC-ICP/MS Analysis of Iodised X-ray Contrast Media
by Peter Pfundstein, Christian Martin, Wolfgang Schulz, Wolfram Seitz, Katinka Meike Ruth, Andrea Wille, Alfred Steinbach and Dirk Flottmann
The use of contrast media in non-invasive diagnostics facilitates targeted imaging of organs and distinction between healthy and unhealthy tissue. One differentiates between contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray examinations. IC-ICP/MS is ideally suited to monitor degradation products of contrast media after wastewater treatment procedures such as ozonation.
Ion chromatography: The All-rounder in the Pharmaceutical Sector
by A. Steinbach
High standards have to be met by the pharmaceutical industry when it comes to drug quality and safety. These standards are documented in pharmacopoeias as officially recognized pharmaceutical rules, and published as legal tools of customer protection by authorities such as governments and medical societies. The identification of a drug depends on sensitive, reliable instruments and methods – as does the determination of the drug’s compliance with applicable regulations.
It’s All Made of Plastic!
by Stephanie Kappes and Alfred Steinbach
‘Plastic’ has become something of a dirty word. It makes us think of trash and environmental pollution, inferior quality, mass-produced goods, and excess. But if you take a look around, you will realize that a lot of the objects that surround us – including those that we couldn’t live without – are also made of plastic.